Has there been any evaluation?
Key evaluation results:
Many evaluation studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted on CCPT. A list of published studies can be found at https://cpt.unt.edu/child-centered-play-therapy.
Key findings include:
- Children with multiple adverse childhood experiences who received CCPT demonstrated significant increases in social emotional competencies and decreases in behavioral problems compared to control group (Ray et al., 2022).
- Children in the CCPT intervention demonstrated significantly less depressive symptoms compared to control group at posttest (Burgin & Ray, 2022).
- Children receiving CCPT had lower aggression scores and higher self-regulation and empathy scores compared to children in waitlist control group (Wilson & Ray, 2018)
- Children receiving CCPT had lower anxiety scores compared to the control group at posttest (Stulmaker et al, 2015)
- Children in the CCPT intervention had lower teacher-reported aggressive behaviors compared to the waitlist control group at posttest (Bratton et al, 2013)
- Children in the CCPT intervention group had higher composite academic achievement compared to the students in the waitlist control group at posttest (Blanco & Ray, 2011)
Is there an evaluation currently in progress or planned?
CCPT is consistently evaluated through ongoing research studies conducted across the world.
Publications about the program:
References for evaluation data cited here:
Blanco PJ & Ray DC. Play therapy in elementary schools: A best practice for improving academic achievement. Journal of Counseling and Development. 2011;89(2):235-243.
Bratton SC, Ceballos PL, Sheely-Moore AI, Meany-Walen K, Pronchenko Y, Jones LD. Head Start early mental health intervention: Effects of child-centered play therapy on disruptive behaviors. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2013;22(1):28-42.
Burgin, E. E., & Ray, D. C. (2022). Child-centered play therapy and childhood depression: An effectiveness study in schools. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi:10.1007/s10826-021-02198-6
Ray, D. C., Burgin, E., Gutierrez, D., Ceballos, P., & Lindo, N. (2022). Child‐centered play therapy and adverse childhood experiences: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Counseling & Development, 100(2), 134–145. doi:10.1002/jcad.12412
Stulmaker HL & Ray. Child-centered play therapy with young children who are anxious: A controlled trial. Child and Youth Services Review. 2015;57:127-133.
Wilson, B., & Ray, D. (2018). Child‐centered play therapy: Aggression, empathy, and self‐regulation. Journal of Counseling & Development 96 (4): 399–409. doi:10.1002/jcad.12222.
Ray D, Purswell K, Haas S, Aldrete C. Child-Centered Play Therapy-Research Integrity Checklist: Development, reliability and use. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2017;26(4):207-217.
Ray DC, Stulmaker HL, Lee KR, Silverman WK. Child-centered play therapy and impairment: Exploring relationships and constructs. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2013;22(1):13-27.
Ray DC, Blanco PJ, Sullivan JM, Holliman R. An exploratory study of child-centered play therapy with aggressive children. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2009;18(3):162-174.
Ray DC, Schottelkorb A, Tsai MH. Play therapy with children exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2007;16(2):95-111.
Rated/Reviewed by Evidence Based Registries:
NREPP: SAMSHA’s National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare
Results First Clearinghouse Database https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/data-visualizations/2015/results-first-clearinghouse-database